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Questions

Perma-Zyme® Q&A

Is there any effect when Perma-Zyme is mixed with any other organic material e.g. CaO or CaCO3?

Perma-Zyme works well with all organic soils. It will increase the bonding of the fines (-200 mesh) and allow greater moisture penetration to facilitate compaction. Perma-Zyme has been used successfully in roads containing Limestone (CaO). Calcite (CaCO3), a fine grain limestone or soft earthy clay, also reacts positively with Perma-Zyme, however the use of clays should be minimized in road building – usually less than 30% -200 mesh.

As time goes on will Perma-Zyme reduce or increase its bonding strength? Will the road come out with cracks or become fragile?

Perma-Zyme treated soils (for roads or ponds) achieve their greatest strength at the time of compaction and immediate subsequent curing (72 hours drying). Bonding of the soil particles takes place in the presence of moisture and comp active force. This condition will last as long as the material resists external forces. Heavy wheel loads, water, freeze-thaw cycles ultimately have an effect on all roads. Perma-Zyme treated soil resists these forces due to the bonded, high density of the road material. The road will resist the detrimental effects of erosion and mechanical forces.

PCracking occurs as a result of two factors: (1) If the road material contains a high percent of expansive clays – having a high shrink-swell factor. When the road is completed and dries out some cracking will appear. This reduces the effectiveness of the roads stability, however we have seen roads showing this condition that have performed very well – but with reduced life. (2) Soft sub-base may not support the treated base under wheel loads i.e. expansive clays. The bearing capability of the road is insufficient. This is corrected by increasing the thickness of the road base.

When the Clay fines (minus 299 mesh) exceed 25% or are highly expansive some surface cracking will occur. Generally the cracks are superficial, often filling in with road particles during normal traffic use. Generally this condition is referred to as “Alligator Cracking” and does not significantly affect to stability of the road base./p>

Rain or other moisture will moderately swell the clay fines and the cracks will close. If the clay material is highly expansive, then the amount of fines should be kept low to reduce the amount of cracking.

Prior to placement of any surface material, the Perma-Zyme treated soil should be lightly sprayed with a dilute solution of water & Perma-Zyme to assist in the bonding of the new surface material (i.e. Asphalt) to the road base. Moisture will close many of the cracks.

Reflective cracks should not migrate upward through the asphalt, unless the clay fines are in the upper range and site conditions see radical sub-surface ground moisture variations.

Proper drainage will reduce ground moisture and keep cracking to a minimum.

After compaction, what is the ratio of expansion? Will extreme weather affect the road (hot or cold)?

After compaction, the expansion-contraction ratio will be dependent upon the soil type (percentage of expansive clays) as well as the gradation range (distribution of particle sizes). Well-graded soil (ranging from -200 mesh to 1 inch) is ideal for road building. The -200 mesh fines should be approximately 20%. If the frost level extends below the level of the road some heaving may occur, however in the spring to road should settle back to its original elevation without severe damage. Proper road construction including shoulder drainage will minimize the effects of frost. Good engineering practices should be observed. Hot weather does not affect a road, other than dry dirt surfaces tend to be dusty under high wheel loading. Perma-Zyme treated surfaces will reduce the amount of dust.

When the road contains more than 20-30% clay, will the road surface become too slippery and lose traction?

Road constructed with material containing a high clay contact will exhibit slippery surfaces when wet. It is necessary to use as much aggregate as possible to not only increase overall strength of the road and increase traction as well in wet conditions.

In many applications surface treatment is applied as part of the overall design. This provides a wearing surface for traction, moisture protection, and greater overall strength. Cost and availability of materials are the primary factors affecting the type of surface treatment, if any.

Perma-Zyme works well with soils that have a clay content passing a 200-mesh screen between 18% to 30%. This range of fines has been indicated as an acceptable range for road building material.

The State of California Transportation Dept. has recently tested Perma-Zyme in soil that has a high clay content and found approx. 27% increase in unconfined compressive strength using Perma-Zyme. The soil tested was substantial clay with over 95 % passing a 200-mesh screen. The clay is classified as ‘FAT CLAY’.

In road building it is desirable to minimize excessive clay content. Under moist conditions the surface will not have proper surface friction and excessive plasticity may be present.

Rex Funk, Emery County Road Supervisor, Utah has experience using Perma-Zyme for over five years, he has reduced his road maintenance by 25% for example where a road typically required bimonthly grading activities, and periodic re-gravelling he used Perma-Zyme to stabilize the road and then placed a thin “chip seal” over the surface. A portion of the road was left bare. Substantial cost saving were obtained and the “bare section of road did not require any maintenance for over 16 months. This road is in a rural location in Emery County, however it receives a wide range of traffic.

In Utah, there are some roads that have been in use for over 8 years with no significant maintenance. Photos of the road are in the Perma-Zyme Manual (Jerome County).

How long will road last when used with Perma-Zyme?

Perma-Zyme treated roads have been in use for over 10 years. The longevity of a road is a function of several factors:

• Climatic conditions such as temperature ranges and rainfall.
• Type of soils used in construction.
• Road design – crowning, drainage & other engineered parameters.
• Type of vehicular traffic, speed and degree of usage.
• Wearing surface applied (if any).
• General maintenance – frequency and quality.

We have seen Perma-Zyme treated roads retain their integrity over long periods than previously experienced by road departments. for example a road in Idaho, USA has been in continual use for over eight years, with very little maintenance. Other geographic areas have reported substantial reduction in road maintenance by over 50%. Perma-Zyme treated road bases last longer.

Can temporary roads be constructed using less Perma-Zyme?

Perma-Zyme is always used at the rate of 1 gallon per 165 cu yds or 1 liter per 33 cu meters of soil material. Temporary roads might be constructed with reduced thickness, providing for wheel loads would not immediately destroy the road.

What kind of equipment and method of construction is used to work on pond slopes?

Ponds are designed to engineered specifications, matching desired capacity with site topography, depth and with or without containment berms. Side slopes of the pond generally are designed with slopes not exceeding 3:1. consideration is given to equipment capability during construction, potential wave erosion and general usage.

Ponds generally are constructed using water trucks; Bulldozers, Motor graders and usually sheep foot compactors (due to high clay content). Perimeter berms are compacted in lifts to rough dimensions and bladed to finish elevations. Sometimes a bulldozer is used for this work due to the steepness of the slope.

Various combinations of equipment are used in difficult ponds. Bulldozer pulling a sheep’s foot compaction drum, or a clamshell excavator being used for grading the side slopes. Equipment availability often dictates what is built in the field.

Is compaction required when using Perma-Zyme?

Perma-Zyme is used when moisture is applied to soil for compaction. Stability or stabilization occurs when soil particles are in close contact. Even when used in pond applications, the downward force of the water assists in compaction.

Spraying Perma-Zyme on soil without any compaction will not affect a change in erosion. The soils ability to resist erosion is a function of the mineral makeup of the soil and compaction (or density).

Will Perma-Zyme affect plant life if there is contact?

Perma-Zyme is not harmful to plant life in its full range of various applications, i.e. road building, pond construction, etc.

Fyre-Zyme® Q&A

What is Fyre-Zyme?

Frye-Zyme is a complex formulation designed to enhance bioremediation of a wide range of petroleum based contaminates in soil and water. It contains no exogenous bacteria but rather it stimulates indigenous bacteria to degrade contaminates. Petroleum based pesticides and herbicides are included in the range of bioremediation activities.

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No. We strongly feel that the addition of genetically engineered organisms (man-made bugs) into the soil is countered productive to the natural order of how things work. Mother nature is able to solve problems with a little assistance from Fyre-Zyme. Adding “bugs” will only cause a disturbance within the soil matrix and can actually do more harm than good. Additionally, the long-term effect of the “foreign” invaders is not known and could have significant detrimental effects on the indigenous life.

What type of enzymes are in Fyre-zyme?

Fyre-Zyme consists of multiple enzymes produced by a rigorously controlled fermentation of a proprietary mix of complex sugars and protein, producing simple sugars, amino acids, extra cellular enzymes, and bio-emulsifiers.

What if it is determined the contaminated soil is sterile?

If the contaminated soil is sterile we recommend the mixing of local soils and resident bacteria into the sterile soil prior to the treatment with Fyre-Zyme. Under these conditions additional applications of Fyre-Zyme may be required to raise the level of indigenous bacteria to the range where bioremediation is prompt and effective.

Does Fyre-Zyme increase the oxygen content in the soils that are to be treated?

Fyre-Zyme does contain a proprietary biodegradable component that adds significant oxygenation to the soils that are being treated. This type of oxygenation specifically enhances the hydrocarbon decomposing bacteria.

Does the presence of heavy metals in the soil have any detrimental effect on Fyre-Zyme?

The presence of heavy metals does not alter the abilities of Fyre-Zyme to degrade the hydrocarbons that are present in the soils. Selected microorganisms can oxidize or reduce metals. This type of activity can be used to remediate various types of metal contaminants. The oxidation or reduction of a metal may be performed directly by the organism or may be result of a reducing agent produced by the organism. Additional methods have been designed to eliminate the presence of heavy metals in soils and can be addressed on an individual basis depending on the site and contaminates.

What is the shelf life of Fyre-Zyme?

Stored under normal conditions, Fyre-Zyme has a shelf life of up to five years. The product can tolerate freezing and still maintain its effectiveness. However, do not expose Fyre-Zyme to temperatures above 140 F for extended periods of time.

Ag-Zyme® Q&A

Can Ag-Zyme be used when fertilizing?

Wait approximately 2 weeks after fertilizing plants. Ag-Zyme increases the ability of the plant to assimilate fertilizer and may “burn” the plant if applied too soon.

What type of plants can Ag-Zyme be used on?

Ag-Zyme works on all the soil and any plant that can benefit from improved soil will be helped. This includes all types of agricultural applications such as Alfalfa, sugar beets, vineyards, nut trees, grass, garden plants and others.

How often should Ag-Zyme be used?

Ag-Zyme generally has been applied two times per year. The first application at the beginning of the growing season and later (approximately one-half) of the growing season if needed.

Can Ag-Zyme be used in conjunction with pesticides?

Generally, Ag-Zyme can be used with pesticides. It has been reported that some insects sprayed with Ag-Zyme die due to a disruption in their digestive system. Also, there is no residue from spray applying Ag-Zyme.

Does Ag-Zyme require special handling?

Ag-Zyme requires no special handling. It is non-toxic and non-hazardous. It is made from naturally fermented organic ingredients with biodegradable dispersant additive.
The sooner you irrigate, the sooner you will receive benefits. However, if you cannot get the water on the ground right away, the Ag-Zyme will lay dormant, without any loss of benefits, until the moisture comes. In some of our dry land (non-irrigated) applications we have gone several months between application and a rain with no loss of benefits.

Bacto-Zyme® Q&A

What are the general applications of Bacto-zyme?

Bacto-zyme is a natural enzyme used for odor control. General applications include septic systems, drain lines, grease traps, waste water, sewage, animal odors, chemical odor control, and agricultural and industrial odor control.

Is Bacto-zyme hazardous?

Bacto-zyme is a natural enzyme and requires no protective clothing. It may be discharged into the environment without deleterious effect and will not harm animals through casual contact.

What is the process for odor control for Animal odors?

Bacto-zyme is non-toxic to humans and other animals. Generally, dilute Bactto-Zyme with 40 parts water and spray on or into odiferous areas caused by animal excrement. Repeated use of Bacto-Zyme will not harm animals.

How do you use Bacto-zyme for grease traps and septic tanks?

The dilution rate is 1-part Bacto-zyme to 10-parts of warm water. After removing as much grease as possible manually, pour the diluted solution into the trap. One gallon of concentrated Bacto-zyme will treat 40-cubic feet. Continues spraying of Bacto-zyme will enhance odor control.Bacto-Zyme promotes the growth of bacteria in septic tanks and assists in digestion and liquidation of solids. It Emulsifies digests the fats and grease to open up absorption fields and keeps lines clean and free of build-up.

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